LA NUEVA REGULACIÓN SOBRE LOS DERECHOS DE AUTOR EN EL MERCADO DIGITAL ÚNICO Y SU IMPACTO EN EL TRÁFICO DE INFORMACIÓN Por Luís A. Izuel Conejo

Hace poco más de dos meses el  Parlamento Europeo con 438 votos a favor, 226 en contra,  aprobó  la modificación de la Directiva de Derechos de Autor , la cual es una legislación destinada a actualizar dichos derechos a los nuevos usos y diversidad de contenidos que circulan por  Internet. A pesar de todo, dicha Directiva aún se encuentra pendiente de ser aprobada en enero de 2019 en una segunda votación, siendo necesaria la adaptación legislativa de los 28  países miembro de la Unión. Esto no ha frenado ni mucho menos el pánico y temor por parte de los millones de usuarios que publican y comparten toda una variedad de contenidos escritos y audiovisuales. La idea de aprobar una nueva normativa que ofrezca unas mayores garantías y control dentro de la Unión Europea, no ha estado exenta de polémica en ninguno de los niveles, tanto en los altos representantes de las instituciones como en los propios usuarios de las grandes plataformas de Internet. Las dificultades en encontrar puntos en común entre los diferentes representantes de  los países de la Unión era patente en 2016 cuando fracasó la aprobación del primer intento de reforma.

Cambio de las reglas de Internet Es cierto que nuestra vida ha cambiado mucho en muy poco tiempo, dado que conforme pasan los años lo que era  una mera sombra nuestra en la dimensión digital ahora contiene casi todo lo que nos define. Es por ello que se hace evidente que  cualquier cambio de las reglas que hacen funcionar nuestro mundo digital causa un impacto tremendo en nuestra vida diaria. Actualmente las reglas que conforman y delimitan nuestra forma de actuar en Internet pasan fácilmente desapercibidas por la mayoría, dado que una vez que un contenido es publicado en internet, esta se hace pública y en consecuencia  perdemos prácticamente todo control sobre él, tanto en el ámbito de la privacidad como en el de la propiedad. Este tipo de reglas o delgadas líneas que limitan algunas publicaciones en Internet comúnmente se manifiestan en Instagram o Facebook, donde algoritmos impiden o bloquean contenidos principalmente fotográficos que puedan considerarse inapropiados. Con la aprobación de la nueva normativa europea, implicaría la autorización de dichos algoritmos pero con un margen de actuación mucho más amplio, bloqueando no solo los contenidos que se consideren inapropiados sino todo aquello que pueda infringir las leyes de ‘copyright.

Incertidumbre e inquietud en los usuarios Ante la pregunta sobre cuál es el principal motivo por el que los usuarios de la Unión Europea están tan preocupados, la respuesta es sencilla. Los usuarios perciben las páginas web, las redes sociales, y otras plataformas como zonas más cómodas de libertad de expresión y difusión de contenido para una interacción más fácil e instantánea con otros usuarios mediante  likes,  comentarios, etc. Ante esta nueva normativa los usuarios tienen miedo que esa flexibilidad de contenidos y de interacción puede verse seriamente mermada. (más…)

Internet privatization: a new non-territorial governance model?

As shown by the ICANN website,  from October 1, 2016  the contract between the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the United States Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), to perform the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions expired.

From now on,  Internet enviroment is managed by a multistakeholders system very different of the way territorial goverments that we know works. This means that new forms of regulation are possible, regardless of national regulations and countries.

According to ICANN Board Chair Stephen D. Crocker  ‘a governance model defined by the inclusion of all voices, including business, academics, technical experts, civil society, governments and many others is the best way to assure that the Internet of tomorrow remains as free, open and accessible as the Internet of today.

People from different economic sectors, cultures, interests and backgrounds worked together to develop two proposals consensus that would ensure continuous, stable and secure services IANA performance and greater accountability of ICANN as coming from one of the two great transition proposals.

Our point is that we should look closely the operation of this management model as it could be exportable to other relationships in which the territorial element can not be applied,  and in consequence can allow troubleshoot application of standards or determination of jurisdiction in what now seems an unattainable solution.

 

LINKS TO PROTECTED CONTENTS OF ANOTHER WEBSITE: EUROPEAN CRITERIA

According to the judgment of the Court of the European Union ruled on 13th FEB 2014 clickable links to protected works published without any access restrictions on another site, affords users of the first site direct access to those works and cannot be restricted by the IP law.

An act of communication such as that made by the manager of a website by means of clickable links is aimed at all potential users of the site managed by that person, that is to say, an indeterminate and fairly large number of recipients.

The communication must also be directed at a new public, that is to say, at a public that was not taken into account by the copyright holders when they authorised the initial communication to the public,  to be included within the meaning of Article 3(1) of Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society

The public targeted by the initial communication consisted of all potential visitors to the site concerned, since, given that access to the works on that site was not subject to any restrictive measures, all Internet users could therefore have free access to them.

In those circumstances, it must be held that, where all the users of another site to whom the works at issue have been communicated by means of a clickable link could access those works directly on the site on which they were initially communicated, without the involvement of the manager of that other site, the users of the site managed by the latter must be deemed to be potential recipients of the initial communication and, therefore, as being part of the public taken into account by the copyright holders when they authorised the initial communication.

History of the Netstates

In April 2012 ‘Year 2112. States become Netstates’ was published. It is a fiction story about a future where (most) of the states has no territory at all  because they became advanced forms of social networks.

In October of this same year the concept  of Netstates was introduced  in the Complutense  University of Madrid (Spain) as a paper to the Congress  ‘Liberties,  transparency and politics in Internet’  titled ‘The transition of social networking towards a new concept of aterritorial states’ and finally published on the same title as an chapter of the book ‘Freedom of information on the Internet: threats and safeguards’ Madrid 2013.

In December of 2013 one of the most important ideas of the concept ‘Netstates’, the participatory surveys,  has been promoted by the Town Council of Zaragoza (Spain) to be a social responsible enterprise under the Privacy and Society of the Knowledge Foundation to create new ways to participation of the citizens in the life of associations or any form of organization based on people linked to objectives held in common.

The core of the idea is the participation of the citizens (or members of associations or whatever) make better any organization,  and it is very simple: Many minds get better ideas than a few of them.

Today the Internet or other sistems of social communication allow ways of political participation never foreseen. (más…)

El vídeo: Stop watching us!!

StopWatching.us  reúne más de 100 organizaciones de todas las tendencias políticas en Estados Unidos  y aboga por las libertades públicas y por el derecho a la privacidad

El video incluye las declaraciones de actores, políticos y expertos legales contra las escuchas masivas llevadas a cabo por la NSA.  Se evidencia que anteriores denuncias de personas afectas al sistema de información de USA han sido más frecuentes de lo que pensábamos

  (English version)

StopWatching.us is a coalition of more than 100 public advocacy organizations and companies from across the political spectrum. This video harnesses the voices of celebrities, activists, legal experts, and other prominent figures in speaking out against mass surveillance by the NSA. Please share widely to help us spread the message

Para ver el video/ Watch the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGmiw_rrNxk&feature=player_detailpage

Privacy of the communications in the workplace. Around european criteria

 Versión en castellano aquí

The recent judgment of the Constitutional Court dated October 7th denied the protection of a dismissed employee who had sent data considered confidential by email to a competing company production.

One of the most important criteria in Spanish Law,  to be considered in the orbit of the European Union law is the expectation of privacy.  If the company makes clear its intention to monitor communications in the workplace no employee is allowed to claim such confidentiality.

The judgment extends the doctrine that had previously sat the Supreme Court, allowing access to the contents of the email addresses of employees who are within the information system of the companies to ascertain any labor violations, understanding that may be sufficient the existing provision in a collective agreement.

When we want to apply the rules of the confidentiality of the communications in the workplace previously we need  to take into account:

1. – The secret of communications protects the communication process, not  the contents  (They has to be protected by privacy law). The object of protection are the communications, whatever contents they have,  in order we can made them freely

2. – There is no secret of communications to  the parties of the communication. Secret means not just the content but also other aspects,  as the identity of the parties  or even telephone call lists,  or incoming and outgoing calls recorded on a cell phone

3 – Communications has to be made through a closed channel. Any communication whose content has to be declared or when it is authorized to be opened, or subjet of any control to determine its nature,  is excluded of the right to the privacy of communications.

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